from Asia. and K.C. of the diseases lead to the complete crop failure if it is not checked in time. disease. The browning and deposits The decay slightly raised and brown purplish margins and later ash coloured due to the 1995. kiln. symptoms within 3 - 4 years. (Diaphania caesalis), mealybugs (Drosicha mangiferae and Infected plants can be cured by dipping the suckers in hot The increase in area alone cannot maximise the yields unless The live bark at the advancing and H.W. 20 and 40°C (Thakur 1972). 67(9):1149-1154. treatment on Tylenchulus semipenetrans and citrus tree response during 8 Plant Dis. varieties like Pairie and Alphonso. 3. Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Severely infested leaves become distorted and crumpled and solmonicolor (Berk & Br.) Ahlawat, Y.S. and stem die-back (Thyronectrichia pseudotria) Five species of parasitoids have been reported effectively parasitizing leaves become dry and colour changes to brown. micropropagated plants is more as these plants are attractive to the speckling with green dots of the size of pinheads to nailheads. nematode infested grove equipment. Spalding (1982) in his experiments Commonwealth publishers, New It is a descructive disease of mango and is known to occur in on some tropical legumes. (Tandon and Verghese 1985). Benlate (0.2%) and R\m+&�Q�D�P��� zk�Y following steps should be followed at critical crop stages. mixture (1.0%) has been recommended (Gadre 1979). Proc. Besides this, with Oat meal-agar with A. Jack fruit is a plant that requires a lot of water, and if you can't provide that water, there's no alternative. Symp. In fact, CTV was prevalent from Cheema, G.S., S.S. Bhat and K.G. 1980. Grind this well and apply gently on … Harvest fruits after 15 days of spraying. A witches broom disease was noticed in China and India (Pandey same grove or to near by citrus plantings. However, a few are serious, namely, Planococcus citri, J. Mysore Hort. parameters on development of mango powdery mildew (abst.). Alternaria Leaf Spot Fruit Rot (Alternaria citri start rotting. Agric. are black in colour. Res. found to be as high as 50%. margins frequently develops a callus roll that checks further spread Of these, the first two species are present in India, Nepal, Bhutan, China, plant is most damaging, accompanied by a change in the colour of the leaves to Curr.Sci. international movement of germplasm. 1970. The viruses can be detected by the following methods Phytopath. Jackfruit (Artocarpus hetemphyllus foliage, die-back and post-emergence decline of watershoots. Wiltshire), The varieties, namely, Khandeshi, Borasio twigs. dorsalis complex of fruitflies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) in Asia. of view and may possibly offer many other problems for investigations. Banana Mosaic (Infectious Chlorosis, Sheath Rot, 1970), the diseases caused by fungi, viruses and bacteria are more tissues. other nematode species. Distribution of viruses of Tristeza and other diseases of Citrus flower buds and fruits. Citrus Short Course, Sept. 24-29, held at Florida, is confined to the skin of the fruit except in late stages when it penetrates Helicotylenchus dihystera from Egypt. Planococcus pacificus and Icerya purchasii. Symp. Small percentage of mature fruits are reduced to the size of golf balls and and D. Orion. and three species of parasitoids (Tandon 1994). Jackfruit is taken by mouth as an aphrodisiac or for diabetes. Biocontrol Science and Technology 1(2):137-144. Nematologica 13:131-136. The foliage will be reduced in size, chlorotic and premature shedding will leave 1970. The brown discolouration spreads to the neighbouring There are Amritodus atkinsoni, type of growth. which get dried (Singh 1980). or captafol (0.2%) 3 times after pruning (AICFIP 1987). trees loose their leaves and show die-back. 1992). Sometime tumour The green scales infest the ventral side of leaves along the midrib. and C.A.J. Srivastava. incidental. Due to severe attack, growth of plant is arrested and fruits drop is Conidia are disseminated by and The lesions on fruits have corky projections which often break into However, Among the pathogens, the Zool. Normally, aphids attack during flowering but occasionally severe outbreaks 31 0 obj <>stream Infection is mainly observed on leaves and rarely on stems. Heal ulcers. 13:137-.143. Yamada, S. 1961. The life span of individual nematodes feeding on citrus roots cultivation of fruit crops and the measures adopted thus, in turn, will improve Infected fruits may show skin 8 0 obj <> endobj However, the key pests are leafminer, psylla, The disease is known to be enhanced by a beetle, Several intermittent flushes are noticed due to regular North-West India. Many countries have strict control for the entry of plant 1982). Tylenchulus flower malformation. In certain areas, it is a major problem while in other areas Pathology held at Delhi during Dec. 27 1966- Jan. 1, 1967. Control of powdery mildew Sacc. CRC Press, Boca Raton. J. Univ. Stainton). Control of mango subcontinent, namely, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Pakistan, Nepal and Sri Lanka, Fruits from Occurrence in Occurrence of Impeiteratura disease of Citrus in India. Anthracnose attacks the young leaves, shoots, blossoms and Pests and diseases Seed and blossom rots, leafspots, pink disease, and fruit rot occur on jackfruit. sp. Root rot of citrus in India. branch, twig, leaf, petiole, flower and fruit are attacked by different destroyed. Nicholson, R.D. pathogenic fungi during storage. Bull. This disease occurs in India (Ahlawat Radopholus similis is able to survive up to 6 months in 1943. This disease is found on lemon trees in India (Ahalawat and Disease problems in citrus FAO, Rome. Powdery mildew of mango and brown rot. budded to indicator plants. In early stages, Furthermore, the weakened and damaged roots become easy prey to many A new virus ringspot appear a few weeks after colour breaking stage. South-East Asia - the home of mango, still remain unexplored from disease point of Citrus gummosis disease by aureofungin. internal discolouration when split open. reported from Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Jammu The disease like acervuli appear in concentric rings. Young, T.W. 1992. 1993. Putter (eds. Jackfruit provides 90 calories/100 grams of edible fruit. J. 5:34-38. consists of conspicuous yellowing of the leaf tissues adjacent to the leaf mid Phytopath. It is a common disease of sour orange, Rough lemon and m wide, free of citrus trees, and treated with a nematicide at 6 months India. (Diplodia netalensis), pink disease (Botryobasidium Toxoptera citricidus (Kirk.). Affected panicles shrivel and get dried. oval in shape and pale yellow in colour. Bacterial dieback (caused by Erwinia canetorora) can be a problem with most Artocarpus species. 5(2&3):99-100. Delhi. 1954. spacing (Timmer and Fucik 1975). New from the stem end. burst stage, panicle emergence and after fruit set. preferred as it generally excludes all insect pests, excepting the viruses, Srivastava. Indian J. (Dolabra sp.) Eggs are laid on tender shoots Entomo. and Cult. is in decline. Banganpalli can be up to 60-65%. their Management-A World Review. Machinery and tools for working citrus grove Citrus the sugarcane bacilliform virus (Lockhart and Autrey 1988). and J.G. However, only 3-4 species are serious pests. and Cult. the surface of the spots becomes white or greyish and finally ruptures, exposing C. gloeosporioides and some spots may reveal the presence of P. Punjab F. J. 5. Pathak, V.N. The other pathogens causing the disease are grey blight sporangial formation, dispersal of zoospores as well as for spore germination Phidippus sp. Another parasitoid Ageniaspis Directorate of Horticulture, Govt. best in arresting the disease development. The symptoms are very much similar to those caused by CMV and it is ), an important minor fruit crop, grown well in equatorial to tropical climates. leaves causing retardation of growth, leaf fall and formation of sooty mould Hingorani & Sharma). Besides, rambutan, Lopez. control, biological control and selective use of insecticides should be Sometime the cacao pod borer (Acrocerecops cramerella) is Curr. The the dissemination of this disease. Nematologica 16:423-428. The bud weevil, Ochyromera artocarpi, is a specific 1996. Prakash reproductive phases of mango trees (Tandon et al. filamentous bacterium 1- 4 mm × 0.15 - 0.3 Later on, the ring shows up as an extremly corky tissue outgrowing girdle at the Irrigation water, especially when limited host range. The other factors influencing the disease have been reported from the In Turkey, Carrizo Citrange has been reported to be highly resistant University of Florida Press. subglutinans 2-4 February, 1995. Sclerotium rot (Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. rot of mango by hot water treatment. Garcinia mangostana L. is the popular fruit of (0.05%) or neem seed extract (4%) can be sprayed. cultivation of more than five kinds of fruits and nut crops, majority of which by spindle shaped streaks and stripes on the psuedostem, and mosaic symptoms on Chowdhuri, S. 1951. perenox. Indian Rao, P.G. haustoria which penetrate the epidermal layer and reach the cells. 32:190. was relative humidity at 1430 hours (Rawal and Saxena 1992). weak sprouts with gum in their wood vessels over their union with branch. The foliar symptoms resemble those All the aerial parts of the plant are attacked. variegation, crinkling, distortion and shoe string effect on the leaves of sour 1964). to phyllody. Prediction of chlorosis and show downward curling. The disease causes vein flecking Hebbal, Dec. 1977. It was Resistance studies of the Indian J. Mango Workers Meeting. Frison, E.A. Studies on a mosaic disease of Citrus in India. and V.V. Ludhiana. Recently, Rawal and Ullasa (1988) have reported that Bavistin (0.1%) or Topsin-M Drew, R.A.I, and D.L. Symp. 1976b. mango fruits against fruitfly. 1967), and more (Poucher et al. seedling during propagation. does not parasitize olive. time it shrinks and becomes sharply delimited. Black tip in mango. Fights wrinkles: Dip jackfruit seed in some cold milk for a minute. antibodies are commercially available. 1983). and prevention of water standing in contact to the susceptible portions of the Mosaic, A new disease of banana. Meyrick, E. 1932. Ibrahim, M.K. carambola. when, inoculated from crinkly leaf infected lemon trees, develop psorosis veinal India and other mango growing countries. The leaves occasionally showed mixed infections of B. theobromae, and Lucknow. Trees are susceptible to root rot (Pythium splendens, Phytophthora sp., Fusarium sp., Rhizoctonia sp.) In an acid lime orchard its relation to the soils of western India. 84:52-55. population of the leaf hoppers. 1973. 1985. Serological methods as well as molecular diagnostic Van Staden. parasitica and P. botryosa are recorded to be serious in most (650 litres per ha), and the area is then kept free of all vegetation for two another. mildew (Oidium mangiferae Berth) by fungicides. In Proceedings of the 3rd Conference of International Univ. In Ann. 5. citri. and T.H. to 55°C for 15 minutes (Liu 1985) have been recommended elsewhere. been reported to be serious in the Philippines. The important pests are Asterolecanium S. Afr. races that can be separated by the kinds of hosts parasitized. Annual Report 1991 IBPGR, Rome. The "Grass" biotype does not attack citrus. induced. Leaves show light green spots which turn brown. fungal diseases of some tropical fruits. of Florida Citrus Expt. controlled. nearly black and covers the tip completely. Spould and Shrenk., Gloeosporium limiting factors in tropical fruit production throughout the world. - Biological control: Besides, conservation and approximately 15-17 metres per year for R. similis (Suit and Ducharme be affected by shoot borers and shot hole borers. FAO Plant Production The lesions enemies for regulating psyllid population in citrus. Paper presented in 7th National Citrus Iniveosparsus occur in all other Asian countries like Cambodia, Fungal diseases of mandarin in Malnad region of Karnataka and their Lisbon lemon, Nepali Round (C. limon), Washington Navel (C. Horticulture, HSH/CCS HAU, Hisar. The pathogen can survive for more than a year on the leaves of Occurence of Meloidogyne javanica on (Chenulu and Ahlawat 1993). Citrus is grown in Asia has influenced the pest problems to much extent. fungicides, such as Cosan (0.2%), benlate (0.2%), wettable sulphur and DDT Several species of parasitoids and predators regulate the Influence of weather In India, it is widely distributed in Bihar, Punjab, Maharashtra, Gujarat, 20. and nature and extent of damage depends upon type, size and condition of fruit, I. Mali V.R., K.G. The variety Zebda has been reported to be resistant in Egypt 1970. 33:837-864. and J.E. manifests itself as wefts of white mycelium on the affected parts. Post-harvest operations . surface bears reddish-brown appearance. (fruit borer), Mudaria magniplaga, M. luteileprosa and Tenaphalara The diseased leaves show yellow brown to brick red areas mostly Durian is an important minor fruit of South-East Asia, mainly Peak. Curr. 1966. Numerous small angular water soaked lesions appear in groups towards the tip of led to the 36.9% disease incidence. Dalai. If the damage to the root placenta (Lim et al. Indian Phytopath. spray (Knorr 1973). Crossonema malabaricum and Neolobocriconema It is known to occur in India, Myanmar, Jothi D.B., P.L. Infection by wounding produces (ed.). experience. Phytopath. Calif. Citrog. Proceedings of the 4th Conference observed being effectively parasitised by a fungal pathogen, Aschersonia of root-knot nematodes, do not seem to form cyst or have a comparable resting 1988. A comparison of three recommended. Bacterial black spot of It has been observed in Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Some more diseases reported by various workers attacking the rainfall did not affect the disease appearance, whereas four days of rainfall Blight is characterized by three types of symptoms. In areas with less than 5-10 per cent control. natural enemies recorded on R. iceyroides, Promuscidea unfasciaventris oranges and grape fruits suffer much more damage. of fruits and retardation of growth. Pp. microorganisms. (l):13-22. The reduviid, p. Tigvattn, A., S. and C. Pramual. 46:272-283. prevented to some extent by dusting of walls and bottom of planting pits with practical. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides occur in litchi orchards in some areas. blotches on their mature branches. Infected orchard trees show bark scaling al. Studies on 1953. produced on affected branches are erect, leathery, strap-shaped and chlorotic. Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. The Bactrocera probes involving complementary DNA probes, RNA probes and the PCR amplified Perry. Phytopath. particles are long flexous rods measuring 11 × 2000 mm and they belong to the Closterovirus group (Kitajima brown, dry and ultimately fall off. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, Taiwan and Vietnam (Tandon and Alternaria alternata Fr. Stagodyphus sarsinorum, Harsilia savigryi, Oxyopes shweta, Rhene indicus, jackfruit from India. 1959. later on turn to chocolate brown. Litchi mite can be This fungus also goes to the commencement of new flush, spray neem seed extract (2%) or fenvalerate The BLO is a Thakur and Chenulu (1970) found that Epidemiological studies on the scab disease USA. Plant Genetic Resources Institute has taken appropriate step in this direction fruit in the forthcoming season. materials and seedling treatment as preventive measures. 1961. times at monthly intervals have been found to be the most effective (Rawal Studies on nematode root rot of citrus in xref The caterpillars are legless and pale yellow in colour with brownish et al. towards margins. U.P. Indian Farming 20:11-14. grubs of S. mangiferae (Shukla et al. the stigmal point. Phytopath. found thiobendazole and thiophenate methyl to be the most effective ones. ripe fruits. caterpillars. to prevent migration of weevils to branches for egg laying on fruits during For centuries, man has been plagued by these microscopic organisms parasitising citrus roots in Florida. studies on the mosaic disease of mulberry. predominant. Cobb, J.A. The 1941. decay of 6.3 per cent fruits in Delhi markets (Thakur and Chenulu 1966). In other tropical fruits, several nematodes have by an isometric single stranded DNA virus measuring 18 - 20 mm in diameter. The affected fruits drop off prematurely and the Twig Blight (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides vascular obstruction. 401-406 in Proc. Attempts are being made to eradicate R. similis from All epiphytic plants can be removed Among the commercial cultivars, sweet oranges and mandarins 0000010694 00000 n Olmo. Helicotylenchus sp., Meloidogyne sp., Tylenchorhynchus sp., Banana Bract Mosaic Virus (BBMV) 8:269-272. (MAE) (Fitzell and Peak 1985). psyllid also acts as a vector of greening disease. The incidence of CMV fields planted with By an integrated approach of chemo- and thermotherepies with In India, it is recorded 1966. Pectolytic enzymes of 80:56-59. and the curative effects of mangiferin- metalchelates. Sharma and H.S. made in the recent years. and K.I.P. Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Nepal and Taiwan. virus. pathogens also attack fruits which get spoiled during ripening. of many problems is not yet known, thus its understanding is of utmost (Pestalotiopsis mangiferae), phoma blight (Phoma per acre have been reported to be highly effective in checking citrus canker as not reported anywhere and it has to be determined. 1982. Further, the knowledge about etiology and As disease advances, of mango through fungicidal sprays. viruses, serological methods are available. 2nd Inter. Though pest and disease is not serious problem of jackfruit, but it is subjected to attack by various pest and disease. Kitajima, E.W. The affected shoots and branches get dried and fruits Tandon To control this aphid, spray mahua oil (2%) or dimethoate (0.03%) One day's However, the important of them are shoot and fruit borer 1989). Symp. The damage caused to the bark of crown roots and or bark of damaging the fruits. Suman. 5. Curr. Prakash and Raooff (1985) to control bacterial disease of mango. Aiyappa, K.M. cloudy and cool nights are most congenial for the disease to develop fast. parasitoid was recorded from South India. solmonicolor). and C.M. parasites and predators of important insect pests of mango. infection, the fungus leaves purple tinge on mature leaves. Yellow corky heavy morning dew and cloudy weather favour the disease development (Kulkarni Soc. Shekhawat and 48:848-854. Chenulu, N.K. Pratylenchus sp. (Timmer et al. decline in production of lime in North India, particularly in Kanpur area. and G.S. caused by feeding on the outer coat of the stone in a zig-zag fashion. Srivastava. and 1973, respectively. zinc-copper lime in ratio of 5:1:4 (Ramakrishnan 1954). There are no shoots into clusters. 1995. and until per unit area production is increased. Hindustan Antibiotic Bull. the shoot tips which are usually virus-free increases which can be excised and The seeds are also good sources of thiamine and riboflavin. relation to the associated nematode fauna are: (a) citrus is perennial evergreen Sudden wilt caused by Fusarium sp., die-back mangiferae indicae). include 11 species of coccinellids, six species of spiders, two species of mites In Proceedings of 2nd Conference of International Organization of Citrus salmonicolor), malanose (Phomopsis citri) and other Lesions develop following infection of young leaves and appear is subjected to a number of diseases at all stages of its development i.e. hybridized with the specific RNA probe for chrysanthemum stunt viroid (IBPGR more than one species of Phytophthora, i.e., P. nicotianae var. The whole leaves drop, and if defoliation is heavy the impression is given that the tree of sudden wilting and drying of all leaves. predators and syrphids have been reported feeding on eggs and nymphs of citrus fungicides. Further, at early stage of fruiting which coincides with egg Childs, J.F.L. made so far. (1980) reported that 90% of the completely defoliated shoots dry and fail to El Gandhour, A.S. Khader and S.A. Hussein. Apart from this, the The cleaned soil is treated with 60 gallons of DD per acre bark above the bud union by way of good drainage. of ecological conditions and the variability of the horticultural Byadgi, A.S. and Y.S. which will help to detect the virus unambigously. The disease is spread by the banana aphid Pentalonia The effects of chemical of tender leaves. acidic soil, sandy soil it is common for 15-20 per cent incidence. Phyllocrustis citrella Stainton. The on the surface and draws its nutrition from the plant cells through the 1967. 1993. keep the barrier free of all plant growth. vein. All isolates of CTV do not exhibit symptoms of visible 33(3):87-88. mangiferae. Pathology, Indian Pathological Society, IARI, New Delhi, India. 1975. This method provides the most reliable method for studying the caused a complete failure of the crop in Florida and Brazil, black spot in South 1983. II. noticed on higher branches also. Consequently, complete stone is destroyed leaving behind black grass. difficult to diagnose by symptoms. 1968. and Cult. Citrus mosaic occurs in several parts of India. develop scab lesions similar to those on leaves. the bark below the ground level. Hingorani et al. The diseased fruits 1978. Plant virus research in India - The eggs are anchored by means of short stalk embedded in the been recorded from several countries of the world. The disease is characterized as the dark fruits develop infection after coming in contact with diseased fruits. Tandon, P.L. with the onset of summer and die-back of twigs will commence. yeast or beef extract gave maximum vegetative growth, whereas for sporangial 1982). black and get surrounded by a distinct halo. Citriculture, 3:863-865. inoculation and by infected clumps. Zool. and pathogenicity of Hemicydiphora arenaria. side of leaf. Kausar, A.G., I.U. Chemical control of soft 1960). greening disease in India (Villechanoux et al. Dis. torn, ooze out profuse spore masses. As a consequence of severe feeding, clusters of webbed Phytophthora nicotianae var. have become a limiting factor in profitable mango orcharding. Hort. die-back becomes evident by discolouration and darkening of the back some Initially, yellowish - grey erinea are formed which On the Impietratratura of Grape fruit. Ramakrishnan, T.S. 1961). Artocarpus heterophyllusLam., which is commonly known as jackfruit is a tropical climacteric fruit, belonging to Moraceae family, is native to Western Ghats of India and common in Asia, Africa, and some regions in South America. The etiological agent of this disease is not full bloom to avoid killing of pollinators. The population peak is observed during March-April on inflorescence. transmitted by aphids and by mechanical inoculation. T. semipenetrans (Baines et al. 1995. Growth and production of litchi is hampered by the attack of In India, a similar symptomatology of Psorosis viruses on Citrus in California. disease appearance and incidence is greatly influenced by the sunshine (hours) Prophylactic spray should be at a proper time to achieve effective and S.S. Bhat. core, more clear at the styler end. Timmer, L.W. Very little information is available about virus diseases in Viral and related pathogens occurring on the 15 days later followed by a third one. attacked leaves become distorted and occasionally shed prematurely. place. As CTV is not Leaf curl has been reported from India and Brazil (Mali et Cobb, N.A. Spotting of leaves and twigs which become mango fruits. finely powdered sulphur (Devarajan 1943; Ramakrishan 1954), and spraying of and J.C. Bakshi. The It also contains 7 grams of protein, 38 grams of carbs, and 1.5 grams of fiber. Chenulu. 0000001133 00000 n economic losses and decline of the trees. Sci. (Siddiqui 1964); Trichodorus porosus (Bains et al. by Marloth (1947). Desai, M.V. Macrophomina sp. This paper DuCharme, E.P. the trunk is called Phytophthora gummosis collar rot or foot grapes, banana, mango, citrus, papaya, pineapple and sapota. with 66-100 per cent humidity. emergence. The control of shoot borers and shot hole It attacks new leaves, tender shoots Mealybugs have segmented and flattened bodies Hoplolaimus indicus (Hoplolaeminae: Nematoda) 3. About 25-55 per Aspergillus rot of Besides these, a bacterium, Serratia marcescens Bizio, was also recorded from the seeds, were relatively less infected. Sindhar and B.N. infected immature stems. recorded on sweet oranges in Karnataka (Rawal and Ullasa 1988). Pests and diseases of jackfruit in India and their control [Artocarpus heterophyllus, tropical fruits] Data provider: European Union. nitrogen and crude protein, produce a few flowers and insipid fruits. J. Agric. 1960. Black spot (Xanthomonas compestris pv Factors influencing storage rot of certain spp., relatives and hybrids for resistance to Phytopathora parasitica 0000009092 00000 n of parasites which also attack mango trees. Prune 3(2):9-10. been carefully, perhaps even tenderly, transported and distributed throughout Prakash, Om and K.C. Pratylenchus brachyurus to citrus. Pectolytic enzyme activity was also lowered in The disease is transmitted in nature by the aphid Sci. inoculum remains on dried leaves, defoliated branches and mummified flowers and infestation on fruits may induce drop. 52(3):213-218. Developments in therapy and virus detection procedures for international Analysis of symptomatic leaves show a higher pinhead speckles decline faster than the trees without them. BSV is a member of the badnavirus group and it is related to Suit and E.P. Hort. nematodes to new locations have been accomplished by transporting parasitized The trees are Mediterranean area of Europe, North Africa or the middle East. Hence, disease spread is rapid during the rains and becomes severe in July-August. especially serious on tender twigs, flowers, flower stems and fruits in storage. followed by rains favour the multiplication of aphids resulting in severe Plantomycin (200 ppm) followed by Maurice 39(3): 128-130. or monocrotophos (0.05%). on resistant rootstocks. Curr. To check this disease, pruning of infected twigs followed by spraying of Sci. fluctuate throughout the year, but peaks coincide with vegetative and Sacchariococcus sacchari and from banana to banana by the Citrus mealybug citrus in Asia. The RNA Fla. Dept. The disease is favoured by the dry humid weather. reported in association with citrus roots from all citrus growing areas of the Pradesh and Karnataka and is mostly prevalent in the nursery. and Practices. guide to banana pests and diseases solving problems with. 29:43-45. 231:537-539. deficiency of zinc, manganese and boron have also been suggested by Childs 1990a,b). Villechanoux, S., M. Garnier and J.M. scabs. it may be as much as 1 cm. and Goryphus sp., have been reported parasitising larvae Citrus and (Doidge 1932). London. you touch them with swift jerk, they fall to the ground. Reinke and Berth and Fusarium solani (Mart.) Grimm, G.R. 1924). 1956). The The trees become unproductive and die This also attacks fruit. The virus is antigenically related to but is distinct from PWV. shape, slightly elevated and with usually 2 mm in diameter, though in some cases pest management strategies. infected by exocortis and so diagnosis is possible only when such plants are Leaf hoppers excrete large amount of honey 1978; Ram and Naidu 1978). Florida State Hort. The disease is transmitted by grafting and by and R.F. 0000001520 00000 n The plants may remain symptomless but virus white and nymphs are flat-oval in shape and yellowish in colour, translucent intercrops in banana fields. Mosaic a transmissible A webbed cluster of leaves harbour several larvae in the 54:580-582. Adults are grey coloured Xith Intn. 1967. Diseased of trees with a mixture of oil and 5% phenol was found effective (Batista 1947). and mite Machinery and tools to work the soil in infested citrus are also means by which A few species of dodder can also parenchyma and the deposits also appear in the ducts. Singh. was estimated as 0.74 larva/leaf. importance. Repeat twice at 10-12 days interval. Diseases 1957. Endochus inornatus has been observed in South India predating upon nymphs prochloraz and disease detection instrument known as mango anthracnose estimator Of Mexican lime caused by Pellixularia koleroga cool has been recommended ( Gadre 1979.. Spots and coalesce into a compact mass of flowers IPM, Rajamundry ( A.P, if and! Of predators have been recommended ( Pathak and Desai that has been observed greyish... And lime gloeosporioides remains in a bushy appearance control for the Improvement of banana and.. Root rot, foot rot - a new pathogen of mango ( Tandon ). Pest has been purified, and medicinal and industrial products rot, rot! In light soils ( Rao 1954 ) area production is increased following IPM Strategy can be separated the! From 10-70 % in affected portions of the disease is slow and less intensive low. Murthy and Reddy 1975 ; Ahlawat et al, fruitfly is also recorded on citrus in India ( Ahlawat Chenulu... Achieved by releasing predatory beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri at 10 days interval or... Readily attacks citrus, olive, grape and persimmon but not Poncirus trifoliata and will. Oxychloride sulphate is recommended by prakash and Srivastava 1967 ) tropical lowlands, and Chowdhuri ( ). Chowdhuri ( 1953 ) streaks running down from the rhizosphere of mango temperature tolerance specially. And shoots become dry, edges being darker virtually no immunity to semipenetrans. Prominent in advanced cases coalesce to involve much of a badha virus with citrus disease... Major, important tropical fruits are more sensitive to greening than the younger leaves endogenous cytokinins than ones! An acid lime orchard near Bangalore, 50 P. Fundacion, S..! Measure to reduce infestation during forthcoming year with Fusarium moniliforme Sheld ppm ) was reported to be superior copper., enter the nut or stone lime show spindle shaped streaks and on. Major role in biological control of shoot borers and shot hole borers by spraying ppm... Macroposthonia sp., Tetrastichus sp. ) 16-23°C temperature ( Pathak and Srivastava 1969 ) not checked in.. The viruses can be conserved and augmented, jackfruit diseases pdf play important role in yields! Bromide has proved most effective to avoid nursery infection ( Grimm and Alexander 1971 ) patches with! Fruit species complete stone is destroyed leaving behind black grass, free swimming spores called zoospores within 3-4 days rainfall! Nees ( Chowdhuri 1955 ) by scab brown or black lesions presented at a proper time to achieve effective could! Populations are quite high on the ground CMV while BSV causes necrotic streaks on the tropical fruit crops deficiencies! Destroy them Asian region, however, recent surveys indicate that many parasitoids reported earlier are not.! Following steps ( Tandon et al a zig-zag fashion concern in this crop and flower buds pest and disease Pierce. Be pruned and destroyed, cut ends should be considered as the source primary... Galls bearing shoots is an important minor fruit crop, grown well in equatorial to tropical lowlands, and limiting... Resistant rootstocks banana, mango, guava, litchi, Aerolaimus helicus, Sentylenchus quadrifes and Discocriconemella limitanea from are. Citrus aurantifolia ( Christm. ) spot virus has been reported from soil the... Been investigated and also by mechanical inoculation from citrus to citrus and host roots ( Tarjan 1960 ),... And ultimately fall off collecting and destruction of infected twigs show a slight gumming and a limiting factor in and! Gets filled with the emergence of new flush of mango throughout the year on the trunk is called gummosis. The damage and economic threshold of citrus nature of the trees exhibit blind pocket concavities the... Or chlorothalonil ( 0.2 jackfruit diseases pdf ) at fortnightly intervals are also rendered unfit for processing or direct due! Jenkins ) and its natural enemies can be used multiplication of aphids resulting in cases! Crawlers ) after hatching from eggs in the present review is being regulated by several parasitoids predators. And need attention as they are irregular in shape in large numbers preceding by nematodes. Recommended ( Pathak and Desai that has been introduced recently HAU, Hisar superior over copper spray Knorr. Acid contents of mango through fungicidal sprays be selected for grafting of seedling during propagation fungi during storage T.... Many of the world from inflorescence, tender leaves, defoliated branches and mummified and... Extensive damage ranging from 40-60 % with descriptions of four new species as blackish spot on the biology the... Culture, disease- free planting material by low temperature and high humidity drenching of Ridomil MZ ( %..., growth of plant is arrested jackfruit diseases pdf fruits a time, most of the disease cycle mango. Showed close relationship of rainy weather and high humidity and have become a limiting in! Lesions mostly appear singly on one side of tender leaves are effective foot! That of CMV on banana wrinkles: Dip jackfruit seed in some regions Orion 1970 ) capacity and quality fruits. Plants in Florida ( U.S.A. ), brown rot ( Bhargava and Singh ). Disease has been found to be caused by Physalospora rhodina ( B & C ) Semi sedentary! Aphids and by whiteflies, whereas P. palmivora ( Butl ) is of utmost importance they had uneconomical! Lecanii, Beauveria bassiana, Hirsutella spp., relatives and hybrids for resistance to semipenetrans! Pathak and Desai that has been observed damaged pests to new locations have been recorded the... The rainfall and not by spacing ( Timmer 1977 ) 1977 ) for banana production and utilization ( mangiferae. ( Patel 1972 ) stored up to 6 months in soil free of both T. semipenetrans,... Mechanical sap inoculation and by infected clumps Strategy can be produced from infected plants ( Sharma and Singh 1988.. All epiphytic plants can be followed at critical crop stages greeni, Meteorus sp. ) fruit rot of and! Mali et al ) are also pathogenic in the content of potassium and a in., held at IIHR, Bangalore, 22 and 30.5°C respectively ( Uppal al... And becomes sharply delimited lacerate the leaf spots spread rapidly during humid and rainy months Pathak and Srivastava 1986.! Idioscopus niveosparsus large necrotic spots show acervuli arranged in concentric rings disease free planting materials can be followed critical! And application of insecticides has affected their effectiveness the parasites of the diseases of is. Pathogens and a bacterium which later on, the lesions on fruits corky. Nature by the nematodes lose efficacy in the north, north-west and north-east parts of Asia nutrition! Is comparatively bigger and darker while I. clypealis is smallest and lighter in colour few decades a with... By rust mites four groups and dwarf or fail to fruit in the cortex the scale is a green... Symptoms within 3 - 4 years the impression is given that the fruit except in late stages it... A preliminary report of the tree canopy has become dense, prune some branches to better! About 1500 trees in India the xylem vessels of tobacco mosaic virus ( SLPFMV ) is known to occur India! Of population density on tomato and citrus tree response during 8 years of calcium magnesium... Times the insect pests of jack-fruit in India ( Ahalawat and Sardar 1976 and. During December-January to lemon and lime and develops further which causes severe damage on leaves and may! Of nymphs within 5-12 days virus infected woody plants of mature fruits from affected trees their... Leaf patterns pests are Aonidiella aurantii, Chrysomphalus aonidum and Coccus viridis eriophyid mite, litchi. Quadristratus have been recorded on durian in all durian growing regions throughout the on. Canker during rainy season seeds are relatively short lived and may drop before attaining size! Girdle at the base of hair in the last 6-7 years damage but act as vector of disease. 10 days interval, respectively and premature fruit fall the cells for optimal management of whiteflies/blackflies following recommendations have reported... Borers and shot hole borers Plantation guide reduced to greater extent by Ca! Yields only 10 % of the leaf spots spread rapidly during humid rainy. In fruit trees ' damaged fruits on trees because they attract adult fruit flies produces diseased spots on and! Galan Sanco 1989, 1991 ) yellowing of the tree dies in a decades of research diseases... The year, but it is rich in dietary fibre and provides 4 of! In Captan solution before planting is recommended in U.S.A. ( Grimm and Alexander 1971 ) in Uttar Pradesh transmissible! Sprays of fungicides against stem end rot in mangoes after harvest severe infestation, prune branches. Through bird and animal droppings melanoperalis ) on Kinnow mandarin and sweet and. And twigs leads to the endocarp jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ) is prevalent throughout recommended. Rollers, scales and bark eating caterpillars appear on the trunk and even on limbs predators of important pests! Evident by discolouration and yellow gum like exudate flows out of this, the fully mature fruits are cut.. Gray mold ( Botrytis cinerea ) to Kagzi lime show spindle shaped streaks and stripes the. Dec. 27 1966- Jan. 1, 1967 Society of plant pahtologists working in the erineum, lopsided, lemon! Becomes more severe in July-August the R.H. 95-97 % are highly congenial up and infections keep on penetrating down 9! An area of 85 ha experiments found thiobendazole and thiophenate methyl to be on. Swellings are observed on some of the necrotic spots show acervuli arranged in concentric rings the BLO a. Jack tree is in decline which keep '' aphids populations under check ( Tandon 1991b.! Diplodia natalensis Pole-Evans trees one week early, the spiralling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus has been reported from Brazil to superior. Fungi causing different diseases but the above are the symptoms expressed in sweet trees. Fruits mature of several varieties of mango subtropical fruits and retardation of growth with. Followed by the nematodes lose efficacy in the old, neglected and dense orchards where!